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12 factos curiosos acerca dos sonhos

Há décadas que os especialistas investigam os sonhos, mas há ainda ‘mistérios’ por desvendar. Conheça algumas das curiosidades sobre os sonhos.
Por Máxima, 22.08.2016
1. Sonhar é uma função natural do cérebro, todos os seres humanos sonham. Mas há pessoas que nunca se lembraram de um único sonho, de acordo com os especialistas.
2. Os sonhos mais longos – até 45 minutos – geralmente ocorrem durante a manhã.
3. Quantidade média de tempo que passamos a sonhar por noite: de 1h30 a 2h.
4. Emoções negativas, como a ansiedade, são mais comuns durante os sonhos do que as positivas.
5. Os psicólogos dizem que tanto os homens como as mulheres se excitam durante os sonhos (mesmo que o sonho nem tenha contexto sexual).
6 Pessoas que deixaram de fumar há muito tempo relatam que têm sonhos muito reais e vívidos durante várias semanas depois de deixar o vício.
7. Os cientistas acreditam que os esquizofrénicos sofrem de uma experiência no sono irregular, e que as alucinações e delírios que experimentam podem realmente ser de "acordar de imediato".
8. Estudos mostram que mulheres que experienciam pesadelos durante a gravidez têm partos mais fáceis do que mulheres que não têm. 
9. O povo Raramuri do norte do México acredita que os sonhos são o resultado do acordar  da alma e das preocupações comuns da vida, e que ajudam a ver o mundo de forma mais clara. Têm o hábito de acordar durante a noite, chamar a família, e discutir os seus sonhos.
10. Os pássaros, como os humanos, experienciam o REM ("movimento rápido dos olhos") no sono, durante o qual experienciam actividade cerebral similar à dos humanos. Estes dados sugerem que os pássaros sonham.
11. Os répteis também experienciam atividade cerebral durante o sono que sugere que podem sonhar (os peixes não).
12. Quase toda a sua vida, o Presidente Lyndon Johnson teve pesadelos em que estava paralisado.
 
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Isabel Dos Porcos Former Nike factory worker shares story of abusive working conditions Noi Supalai has faced years of harsh and abusive working conditions as a garment worker in her home country of Thailand. On Monday night, she related the story of her and her coworkers’ struggles working in a factory called Eagle Speed, where she produced apparel for Nike. The event was hosted by the Penn State chapter of the United Students Against Sweatshops, a national organization campaigning for workers’ rights, as part of its nationwide “Just Do the Right Thing” campaign. Speaking before a crowd in the Kern Building via a translator, Supalai began by describing how she and her coworkers grew increasingly impatient over the abuses they faced at Eagle Speed. These abuses included harsh time constraints — some days they were forced to “take turns to go home for a shower” — which were brought on by the rigid deadlines set on the products by Nike. Supalai said because the workers could not produce all of the products by the set deadline, Nike put a fine on the factory, which in turn barred the factory from paying the workers. “It had been two months that we did not get paid, so we got together to protest,” Supalai said via a translator. Numbering around 2,000 at the time, the workers turned to the owner of the factory, who said they had no choice but to keep working on the products, Supalai said. Since they lacked the financial stability to cover their basic necessities, the workers went on strike, she said. As a result of Nike refusing to help them in their current situation, they formed a union, of which Supalai was chosen to be president. After a series of unsuccessful attempts at drawing the support of other organizations, Supalai said the factory set up an appointment with some Nike representatives, which also ended in failure as they “never showed up.” Soon after, 23 of her coworkers were locked up by the factory owner for being too “radical” as they were deemed a negative influence on the other workers. “We were really hopeful,” Supalai said of the anticipation leading up to the appointment. “But when the day of the appointment came, [the representatives] did not show up and they just disappeared, and we never heard of them again.” Later on, she and her coworkers learned that Nike had moved its orders outside of the factory, Supalai said. “When I learned that, I was really sad and disappointed,” she said. “I never expected such a big company like Nike to lack such business ethics. They did not have the humanity to care for the workers — actually, they could talk with the factory to treat us better…but they just did not care about the humanity.” However, she refused to give up the fight. She said she turned to the Worker Rights Consortium, an independent organization founded by USAS, and invited them to inspect the working conditions at the factory. As a “last hope” for the workers, the WRC was successful in supporting them and “settling things down,” but she said the feud with Nike still left her disappointed and even driven her to burn all of the Nike apparel that she owned. “I did that because I know now that Nike doesn’t have morality — it doesn’t have business ethics,” Supalai said. Supalai closed her speech by stressing the importance of monitoring organizations such as the WRC on factories worldwide. “I would like everyone to support each other in campaigning for Nike to be monitored,” she said. “Nike says it has humanity, that it has morality; this is not true. Nike has to be monitored, because otherwise, it will take advantage of workers who are producing for them. USAS member Emily Gifford said one of the main issues affecting the organization’s campaign is Nike’s decision to deny access to independent monitors such as the WRC into its factories. “[WRC] is the main regulatory body that governs how the factories’ policies are implemented to make sure they’re aligned with typical standards,” Gifford (junior-labor and employment relations) said. “So, no child labor; people are actually getting paid fair hours.” Gifford said she hopes Supalai gives students a “human face” to connect to the issue of sweatshops and allow them to see why it is of particular importance to her organization. “[Supalai’s speech] will educate people on the issue and gain more support for our campaign,” USAS member Samantha Matthews (freshman-divison of undergraduate studies) said. “Hopefully, she’ll propel that we have [the opportunity] as students and that we can make a change.
25.08.2016 @facebook
Isabel Dos Porcos Nike lists abuses at Asian factories https://www.theguardian.com/business/2005/apr/14/ethicalbusiness.money Nike, long the subject of sweatshop allegations, yesterday produced the most comprehensive picture yet of the 700 factories that produce its footwear and clothing, detailing admissions of abuses, including forced overtime and restricted access to water. The company has published a 108-page report, available on its website, the first since it paid $1.5m to settle allegations that it had made false claims about how well its workers were treated. For years activists have been pressing Nike and other companies to reveal where their factories are in order to allow independent monitoring. Nike lists 124 plants in China contracted to make its products, 73 in Thailand, 35 in South Korea, 34 in Vietnam and others in Asia. It also produces goods in South America, Australia, Canada, Italy, Mexico, Turkey and the US. It employs 650,000 contract workers worldwide. The report admits to widespread problems, particularly in Nike's Asian factories. The company said it audited hundreds of factories in 2003 and 2004 and found cases of "abusive treatment", physical and verbal, in more than a quarter of its south Asian plants. Between 25% and 50% of the factories in the region restrict access to toilets and drinking water during the workday. The same percentage deny workers at least one day off in seven. In more than half of Nike's factories, the report said, employees worked more than 60 hours a week. In up to 25%, workers refusing to do overtime were punished. Wages were also below the legal minimum at up to 25% of factories. Michael Posner, the executive director of the organisation Human Rights First, described the report as "an important step forward" and praised Nike for its transparency. But he added: "The facts on the ground suggest there are still enormous problems with these supply chains and facto ries ... what is Nike doing to change the picture and give workers more rights?" Advertisement Nike has joined the Fair Labour Association, a group that includes other footwear and clothing makers, as well as NGOs and universities, which conducts independent audits designed to improve standards across the industry.The company said it needed further cooperation with other members of the industry. "We do not believe Nike has the power to single-handedly solve the issues at stake," the company said in the report. Mr Posner said retailers such as Wal-Mart bore huge responsibility for keeping prices low and consequently compounding poor working conditions in factories overseas. He said that the likes of Nike and Adidas needed to work together to gain some kind of counterweight. Debora Spar, the author of a case study on Nike, said the report "shows the company has turned a corner, although I am not sure that I would describe it as a very sharp corner." A Former Factory Worker Is Criticizing Nike for Unfair Labor Practices •Share •Tweet 235 Image via Associated Press/Wall Street Journal Although Nike has gone to great lengths in recent years to improve working conditions in overseas factories, a former labor party president in Thailand says the brand took advantage of contracted workers following 2008's Great Recession. As reported by Purdue Exponent, former factory worker Noi Supalai—who the publication incorrectly pegs as a former Nike employee—recently spoke at Purdue University to shed light on what went down behind the scenes following the economy's downturn. "[In] the year 2008, when the economy wasn’t good, the factories started to receive fewer orders from brands, and they [started] to lose some profits," Supalai said, claiming that the brand responded by forcing workers to manufacture shoes quicker than before for even less money. "The deal that Nike wanted to make with the factory was that if the factory wants the orders for Nike, it has to be able to produce in a shorter time frame with lower costs."
25.08.2016 @facebook
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